- On the shoulders of the cloud giants : citation practices in the TTRPG
- Wikidata > SPARQL > R Studio
- Ampersand, Assonances & Alliterations : The Shape of Dungeons & Dragons's Name
- Les premiers maîtres de jeu : le mouvement du freie kriegsspiel (1870-1880) avec : Pratiques de citations dans les wargames (to be translated)
- Cultural influences on TTRPG citation practices
- Cease & Desist
- Citation Practices in Games. Why Citing or Not Citing ?
- On the shoulders ... (first post in 2018)
- TTTTRPG (Timeline Tree of Tabletop Role-playing games)
- TTRPG & education
- ThesaurusRex: a controlled vocabulary thesaurus for RPGs
- Tabletop role-playing games as hospitality and hosting rituals
- What if... TRPGs were created before 1971 ?
- Psychology : Storytelling ; De-roling 1/ 2
- Socratic questioning
- Role-playing game groups as hunter-gatherer bands; Anthropology & RPG
- The 1st game masters
Thursday, August 20, 2020
This essay is part of the On the Shoulders of Cloud Giants project that studies citation practices in tabletop role-playing games. I got the idea from a Podcast Science episode a few years ago where a speaker wanted to conduct a research on the use of epigraphs in scientific articles.
General information on epigraphs
An epigraph is a short quotation, usually from another author, displayed at the beginning of a text (a book or a chapter of example). It is usually a proverb, a line of dialogue, a sentence from a novel, etc. This paratext element can have different purposes : creating an atmosphere, playing with the reader, etc.
Examples of influential works containing epigraphs (1,2,5):
- The oldest that my sources (1-5) have investigated date back to Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (c.1400).
- Fictitious epigraphs are found in Don Quixote (1605) and in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726) explaining that Gulliver exists.
- In Latin: in The Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu (1748) or the Memoirs from Beyond the Grave by Chateaubriand (1848).
- For each chapter in many Gothic novels: The Monk of Lewis (1796), Melmoth of Maturin (1820), Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories, etc.
- It seems that the Romantics made extensive use of it compared to their predecessors: as in Victor Hugo’s Hans of Iceland (1823).
- Moby-Dick de Melville (1851) contains perhaps the longest epigraph.
- Stylish fashion in the 1920s with Hemingway or Fitzgerald.
- Lots of fantasy writers use them [future project: review them]: J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, me, etc.
Epigraphs and copyright
[NB: The following information does not constitute legal advice.]
Even though an epigraph is a short excerpt, that does not exempt the person using an epigraph from requesting permission. For example, song lyrics or poetry lines, even quoted very laconically, are likely to be problematic. Some scholars are advocating for a more open use of quotation in published works (6).
In some special cases, fair use may be invoked. For example, if the meaning of the epigraph is directly related to the meaning of the text that follows, it is therefore not purely decorative, so fair use can be invoked.
All of the functions of a traditional citation can be used to explain the purpose of an epigraph (see the post Citation Practices in Games. Why Citing or Not Citing ?).
Additionnaly, there are « appetizer » functions, specific to the epigraphs (2,3,4,5):
- Arousing an emotion in the reader: a mood, a disposition. And thus give insight into the spirit of the text, tone, genre, theme, or change of tone.
- Challenging the reader’s ability of interpretation: teaser, key to understanding, text commentary, new light on a character, magnifying glass effect on an idea.
- Revealing or predicting an event to come (foreshadowing), or creating an expectation in the reader.
- Exposing the universe in a diegetic and non-masterful way to give an effect of plausibility and immersion. Example: The Lord of the Rings epigraph
|Epigraph of the 3 volumes of The Lord of the Rings|
But also :
- Playing with the reader: apocryphal epigraphs (purely invented), in counterpoint or as an ironic distance from the text.
- Adding the intellectual or moral guarantee of the cited authors, or connecting of the text to a larger body of works.
- Exhibiting of the cultural universe of the author of the text, and let’s say it a display of his culture or his erudition.
- Giving the feeling of mise en abyme with mini-stories behind each epigraph.
- Reminding the reader that the author is a reader too.
- Beautifying the layout of the first page.
In tabletop role-playing games?
The TV Tropes site brilliantly synthesized the concept of epigraph as an element of diegetic exhibition with the term “Encyclopedia Exposita” (the site also details the term Epigraph, but it is less comprehensive). In the Tabletop Games subsection, it lists a few role-playing games that use epigraphs as painless exposure tools.
There is (in May 2020):
- A mention of the fluff text of Magic: The Gathering cards.
- A commentary on the very numerous epigraphs of Nobilis, epigraphs of works that do not exist.
- A mention that White Wolf games, TSR’s Van Richten’s Guides, Shadowrun, Paranoia XP, Chuubo’s Marvelous Wish-Granting Engine and the Warhammer 40,000 line are using epigraphs.
To my knowledge, this is the only web page with information on epigraphs in role-playing games (other than a forum discussion of epigraphs in SJG games).
As part of my On the Shoulders of Cloud Giants project, I decided to add an Epigraph variable to identify all types of epigraphs and their quantity in a given role play.
The variable is encoded according to a series of characters. For example, a value can be
gcab. There is no order in the letters
s: several (more than 10)
0: none (no epigraph)
l: literary, written arts
a: academic, essay
f: in fiction / purely diegetic
g: game designers
c: cinema / tv
b: bd, manga, comics
R Studio script to merge a variable in a local table with an existing data table
Epigraph encoding is done by hand in a csv file formatted as follows:
"", "citing", "citingLabel", "epigraph" "94", "http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q16382652", "Athanor", "rmlu"
While waiting for the full results, here’s what I noticed:
- Dungeon World (25 epigraphs), Nobilis and Sorcerer (19) are great champions of the number of epigraphs.
- Nobilis contains completely fictitious epigraphs. It is not obvious at first glance since they look like epigraphs of works that might exist. This creates an interesting confusing effect.
- Several games have exactly six (6) epigraphs.
- Pendragon explains (p. 6) the three types of epigraphic quotes included in the rulebook and their meanings.
Epigraph graphically highlighted in the game Kult (v.1 English), p.240.
And then ?
To be continued for the results of the analysis …
- Genette, Gérard, Seuils, Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1987, p. 136-148.
- Ahern, Rosemary, ed. The Art of the Epigraph: How Great Books Begin. New York: Atria Books, 2012.
- Thiebaut, Guy. “The epigraph effect in D.F. Sarmiento’s Facundo”. América: Cahiers du CRICCAL, Short forms of cultural expression in Latin America from 1850 to the present day: Poetry, Theater, Song, Chronicle, Essay, 18, nᵒ 2 (1997): 547-57. https://doi.org/10.3406/ameri.1997.1291.
- Kieffer, Kristen. “Should You Include an Epigraph in Your Novel? Well-Storied (blog), 2016.
- Shemshurenko, Oksana, Guzel Golikova, and Monika Ševečková. “Poetics of the Psychological Game: The Role of the Epigraph in the Short Stories by E. A. Poe”. Astra Salvensis 1, No. 4 (2017): 95-101.
- Bently, Lionel. 2020. « Copyright and Quotation in Film and TV ». CREATe working paper 2020 (8): 1‑33. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3961296. Summary here.
Saturday, August 1, 2020
The purpose of a cease & desist letters is to precisely, explicitly and formally warn a person or an organization about a conflict. It can be written by anyone (a law firm can bring a little more credit and potentially more legal precisions). It also often contains a way to resolve this conflict, usually ceasing an activity (cease) and making a commitment not to undertake it again (desist).
Games copyright lawyer Zachary C. Strebeck estimated that in the United States a C&D letter sent by a lawyer costs between $ 300 and $ 1,000 (for 1 to 2 hours of work) in 2018. He said it can vary a lot between law firms (8).
C&D and D&D
Dungeons & Dragons was the first role-playing game released, and TSR's C&D were the firsts legal actions to impact the role-playing community (the company earned the nickname «T$R» or «They Sue Regularly»). Furthermore, TSR and WotC being the main players in the role-playing industry, their practices have had a significant influence. Later, the introduction of the Open Game License by WotC was a pivotal moment for intellectual property and it was a kind of reversal of C&D values.
Tactical Studies Rules (1973-1975)TSR received a C&D in 1974 from the E.R. Burrough Estate Foundation for Warriors of Mars (15).
TSR sent a C&D in 1975 against Robert Ruppert, who was selling character sheets stamped “Dungeons & Dragons Character Sheet” for 2 cents (3, p.108).
TSR Hobbies, Inc. (1975-1983)
With Tunnels & Trolls
TSR sends out a C&D circa 1975 or 1976 against the Flying Buffalo Company and Metagaming Concepts magazine for their advertisements and reviews of Tunnels & Trolls, defined as a game "like D&D".
Without surprise, the reference to D&D disappears in subsequent editions of Tunnels & Trolls.
With TolkienTSR receives a C&D at the end of 1977, from Saul Zaentz (via its Elan Merchandising division which had acquired the non-literary derivative rights from Tolkien) for the named creatures like Hobbit, Ent, Balrog, etc. (5, p. 29).
With Arduin GrimoireTSR sends a C&D between 1977-1979 against David Hargrave for his Arduin Grimoire (4). In the preface to the first volume of Arduin Grimoire, David Hargrave is explicit about the change in tone and values in the role-playing community due to huge commercial success.
With ChaosiumJeff Pimper and Steve Perrin approached TSR to publish a collection of monsters and they received a C&D letter from TSR in return (5, p. 250). Finally, they published their famous All the Worlds’ Monsters with Chaosium in 1977, a few months before TSR's Monster Manual. Since this success, Chaosium has grown into a major TTRPG publisher.
In 1978 and 1979, the authors of RuneQuest (Chaosium) dedicated the first two editions of their game to Dave Arneson, Gary Gygax and Ken St-André (discussed in a previous post).
The dedications and the bibliography disappeared in RuneQuest 3rd edition (from Games Workshop in 1984). The mention of D&D reappeared in the 6th ed. of the game (p. 4, 2012). A literary bibliography reappeared in HeroQuest - Roleplaying in Glorantha (p. 266, 2003).
TSR, Inc. (1983-2003)TSR sent a C&D in 1992 against Gary Gygax and his game Dangerous Dimensions (DD) before its publication, renaming it Dangerous Journey. (5, p.101)
TSR sent C&D in 1993 against a large number of FTP sites or websites that contained material for D&D, even sites without copyright material (2).
Between 1991 and 1994, Shannon Appelcline, now WotC product historian, remembers being very angry when he received an email from TSR for a C&D website that he administered but which did not contain any content related to D&D (16, 9 min. 30 s.):
This wave of C&D seems to have been quite massive and has been dubbed “TSR vs. The Internet ”(17).
Wizards of the Coast (1997-now)2000. WotC introduced a new practice in the tabletop role-playing games publishing industry: the Open Game License (v.1.0). It matches a spirit of the time : the free software licensing and copyleft movement. It also provides a counterpoint to the values and damage done by TSR's C&D waves.
2008. WotC backtracking towards a more restrictive license (Game System License, GSL).
2016. WotC reverts to a more open OGL license (v.1.0a).
Others Cease & DesistBy doing some research on the Internet, I spotted these few other cases. Like the facts listed before, there is a search bias and selection bias, so these facts are not representative.
The term Fanwork Ban from the TV Tropes wiki brings together several interesting cases.
Palladium Books is famous in the role-playing hobby for its numerous C&D letters sent to companies or individuals, especially to those who are converting its rules to other game rules (7; 14).
Games Workshop also restricts the distribution of fan material or homemade miniatures made by fans.
In 2001, Other Hands Magazine, made by a MERP fan, received a C&D from Tolkien Enterprises.
In 2007, the Fallout-based RPG Exodus received a C&D from Bethesda.
2011. 20th Century Fox sends C&D to a club of Firefly RPG fans.
2015. The amateur role-playing game Mass Effect RPG for Fate was removed from the Ennies Awards competition by a C&D from BioWare / EA.
Unknown date. C&D received by a GM for an online game of Harry Potter, from Warner Bros.
Impact on citation practicesIn Colin Stricklin's memoir, he argues that role-playing games are incomplete products which require dialogue between the authority of the higher order author of the games and the authority of the lower order author, ie. game masters. Their interaction creates an equitable and more democratic culture of convergence. According to him, Cease & Desist are naturally less frequent there than in other cultural media (10, p. 67). I don't agree. No comparison study has been done with other media. Moreover, by seeing this review, it would appear that this is not the case. Finally, savvy hobby participants are familiar with the practice of C&D and know that it is not uncommon.
Thus, it can reasonably be argued that the issuing of Cease & Desist orders have had a profound impact on the role-playing industry and fan communities. More specifically, they have potentially negatively influenced citation, dedication, tribute, attribution, and explicit recognition practices in published works. Indeed, we often quote and cite to be part of a community. However, the exclusion and rejection outcomes of a C&D letter directly hurt this desire of belonging and being included.
I will elaborate in a future post how the Open Game License lead to systematic citation.
(2) Brown, Janelle (1997). Disaffected Fans Cheer D&D Buyout. Wired. https://www.wired.com/1997/04/disaffected-fans-cheer-dd-buyout/
(3) Ewalt, David M. (2014) Of Dice and Men: The Story of Dungeons & Dragons and The People Who Play It, Simon and Schuster. p.108.
(4) Hartlage, David (2015, juin 24). Once subversive, the Arduin Grimoire’s influence reaches today’s games. DMDavid. https://dmdavid.com/tag/once-subversive-the-arduin-grimoire-reached-into-every-role-playing-game/
(5) Appelcline, Shannon. 2015. Designers & Dragons: The 70s. 2nd ed. Silver Spring, MD: Evil Hat Productions.
(6) « Insidious (DCG1 Version) ». s. d. RPGGeek. https://rpggeek.com/rpgitem/79231/insidious
(7) Ninjafingers. 2010. « Why the Palladium Hate? » RPGnet Forums. https://forum.rpg.net/index.php?threads/why-the-palladium-hate.516154/
(8) Strebeck, Zachary C. 2018. « How Much Does a Trademark Attorney Cost? [And What Do They Do?] ». Video Game Lawyer | Zachary C. Strebeck | Attorney at Law (blog). 2 octobre 2018. https://strebecklaw.com/trademark-attorney-cost/
(9) Collins, Daniel R. « James Ward on Deities & Demigods ». Delta’s D&D Hotspot (blog), 6 mars 2015. https://deltasdnd.blogspot.com/2015/03/james-ward-on-deities-demigods.html
(10) Stricklin, Colin. 2017. « Off the Rails: Convergence through Tabletop Role-Playing Modules ». M.A. English Literature, Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. https://search.proquest.com/pqdtglobal/docview/1933767019/abstract/C78AFEE5079444BAPQ/14
(11) Demil, Benoît, et Xavier Lecocq. 2014. « The Rise and Fall of an Open Business Model ». Revue d’économie industrielle 146 (2): 85‑113. http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=REI_146_0085
(12) Hartlage, David. « The True Story of the Cthulhu and Elric Sections Removed from Deities & Demigods ». DMDavid (blog), 8 janvier 2019. http://dmdavid.com/tag/the-true-story-of-the-cthulhu-and-elric-sections-removed-from-deities-demigods/
(13) Peterson, Jon. 2013. « Character Sheets in 1975 ». Playing at the World (blog). 7 juillet 2013. http://playingattheworld.blogspot.com/2013/07/character-sheets-in-1975.html
(14) Alien Rope Burn. 2004. « The Palladium Megaverse Gigathread ». The Something Awful Forums. https://forums.somethingawful.com/showthread.php?threadid=3547622&pagenumber=1
(15) Steve Zieser. « Warriors of Mars », Iron Rationales, August 28, 2010; et James Maliszewski « Retrospective: Warriors of Mars », Grognardia, March 14, 2012.
(16) « RPG Historian Shannon Appelcline Told to Cease & Desist by TSR ». 2019. Plot Points. https://plotpoints.libsyn.com/rpg-historian-shannon-appelcline-told-to-cease-desist-by-tsr-ep166
(17) Vassilakos, Jim. 1995. « TSR vs. The Internet ». 1995. http://d7.pipemaze.com/tsr-vs-the-internet/
Monday, March 9, 2020
Hospitality is one of the foundations of social life. It is a series of codified and universal behaviors that reduce the emotion of stress when meeting strangers. It is played on short term, has a fixed duration and usually takes place once.
All participants will pretend they have en equal peer-like status. Except that one will have the role of host and the other will have the role of guest. These roles are clearly defined, separate and distinct.
For the host, the motivation to receive with hospitality is to maintain or increase its reputation. More spiritually, hospitality is a test of humility for the host and for the guest. This test is mainly expressed by a test of service for the host, and a test of voluntary dependance for the guest. (Shryock 2012)
Walter Crist, archeologist, claims ancient boardgames were functioning as social lubricants and ludic lingua franca between different societies. “People will play games when they vaguely know each other, to get to know one another.” The ability to judge another person was valuable. It helped find answers to important questions: Are you good enough to be part of my family? Should I trust you enough to trade with you? “This is how games passed between cultures” (Crist, 2019). [added 2020-12-02]
InvitationIn contemporary sociability, invitations look like hospitality rituals. However, people are more familiar to each others and invitations can be recurring. (Augustin 2018; Burn 2017)
PreparationThe host has to prepare something. It is a question of reputation, sovereignty, wealth and generosity. He should even do a little too much. The guest has to taste it a bit at least. Hospitality being a test of humility, it is up to the host to adapt his service to his guests. Whatever the ranks of different guests, he should have spoken to at least each of them once.
Role-playing applications:If you are doing low prep, remember that it is thanks to your years of experience, your culture and your ability to listen to players. If you do a lot of preparation, don't neglect listening to the players and adapt your work.
Even if all players do not have the same appetite for attention, focus the spotlight on each of them and actively manage the speaking time. If you are too much on laissez-faire, you may have given up your role as sovereign host. Everyone should feel like they are receiving fair attention (not necessarily equal attention).
PresentationsThe host does not ask their guest who they are, where they come from, what is their identity. A host must first receive his guest, feed him and entertain him. An example of a bad host: the giant Polyphemus, who eats his visitors, but also who harasses Odysseus with the question "Who are you?". Barbaric question to which Odysseus is well justified to lie by answering "My name is nobody." (Potter 2013)
Application for role playing:Do not make a thorough presentation of the characters from the start. Let's play them first, do flashbacks later. Players, don't push the content of your 10-page background right away in one block. You are the guest: gradually weave it with the current game when an opportunity is served/offered.
Layers of the gameIt is up to the host to accompany each descent or ascent from one game layer to another (Sniezak 2016). Each social layer is included/nested in another one (maybe: to explore). Each one is a new dimension, a new frame, with its rules, limits, roles, expectations, emotions.
Applications:A game master can invite in his home, in his campaign with a specific genre, in such a scenario, in this scene played in the first person, rules by this mechanic.
Favor a gradual entry into the game, with physical rituals (dim light, specific local, etc.) or communication rituals (key phrases, reminder of the past session, etc.). It clarifies the confusion of role, layers, playful attitude, etc.
|The Top Traits of a Good Dungeon Master: Sly Flourish (Shea 2017). |
The vast majority of traits are linked to an hospitable personality.
Sometimes the game master is a guest in the house of one of the players. The more explicit, discussed and shared each layers, the better.
SafetyThe host must guarantee the safety and protection of his guests. In the old days, it was mainly about the physical safety.
Applications :Emotional security around the table. The game master try not to confront the fears of his players: the fear of ridicule (“they will make fun of me”), the fear of madness (“they will find me weird”) and the fear of the obscene (“they will find it shocking ”) (qui revient de loin 2019).
« The one who lose a character, a fight, a contest, who lose face, etc. has a final word on what happen to his character.» (Eugénie 2017).
The game master can facilitate a debriefing /feedback after the game to reduce confusion, prioritize the information, improve for the next times, listen to what was not said or heard during the game, etc.
SovereigntyAt all times, the host must be sovereign and remain so, without losing this role. He is the only one who can exclude. Its better if he follows pre-established rules ("explicit, official, precise, transparent, auditable, deemed intangible, and leaving no room for arbitrariness"). The people you never want to be invited to game with are are the fairies because they are known to turn any social exchange into a justification.
« Interactions with faeries in folklore and fiction are one part entertainment to three parts weaponized manners. » (Lauer 2019)
Applications:"I will not abandon you" (Baker & Care Boss 2006). The game master is present and active for his players, whatever happens. He does not disappear unexpectedly. He does not delegate his role as host to another player (if he does, he trusts that player will not abuse this temporary role).
The game contract is an asset (Coeymans 2019).
GiftsThe guests leave with gifts from the host. These gifts create a bond and they invite reciprocity. (Dobrin 2013)
Applications:Symbolic rewards (XPs, powers, etc.), invitations to collaborative worldbuilding, physical props (cards, texts, etc.), propose a player to be the next game master, etc.
ImpromptuThe guest arrives unexpectedly, without letting the host prepare. This can be interpreted as a [mise en defaut] by the guest to the host who is unable to serve properly (Zink 2010).
Applications:Players who do not respond to an invitation to play, but invite themselves when they want at the times they choose.
The players decide that their characters leave the thorougline of the current campaign to go in another direction. The game master must readjust immediately his weekly campaign. (I was one of those players).
Host exhaustionThe guest should not exhaust the resources of the host. It is up to him to figure out how to politely refuse an overly generous preparation or invitation. Examples of bad guests who exhaust the resources of a small poor kingdom: the pretenders of Penelope of Ithaca who will be killed (with the maids of Ithaca too).
Do not stay too long and go home, even if you are offered to stay a little longer. (I was one of those players)
Dear guests, minimize your personal footprint. Remember that you have accepted a voluntary temporary dependance to the host. The expression "Make yourself at home!" is only an figure of speech of politeness.
Understanding the power gamer
If being a power gamer (munchkin, Monty Haul, etc.) type of player means "pulling the game towards yourself, to the detriment of the other participants, via the abilities of your character," then such behavior can be seen as a breach of the hospitality relationship. Indeed, by pulling the invitation to himself to the detriment of the host and other guests, this kind of player oversteps the humility necessary for his role and he is stepping outside the framework in which he agreed to be welcomed. [added Jan 24, 2021]
Host > guest?Like gift exchanges, the success of a transformative hospitality for both the host and the guest, is when the guest has a real opportunity of expressing a reciprocity. And this reciprocity is received in return by the host.
"Hospitality is not about changing people, but about providing a space where change can take place. "(Henri Nouwen, 1986)
Abraham received guests who turned out to be God and his angels, Zeus was the patron of foreign visitors, ... you never know how a guest can transform us.
|Wikimédia Commons – The Hospitality of Abraham, Arent de Gelder vers 1680.|
Special dedicationTo all the hospitable game masters who welcome me in their stories : Gregory, Laurent, Alex, Yohann, Berli, Nico, Hélios, Florient, Zulaan, Olivier, Oliviorc, Fabrice, Janus, Christian, Cyril, …
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
IntroductionMy project On the Shoulders of Cloud Giants (I changed the name) is analysing the citation practices within the tabletop role-playing game publishing industry. For this purpose, :
- I selected and analysed TTRPG;
- I designed a database of citations within Wikidata and queried by SPARQL;
- I started analyzing the data with R and R Studio.
SelectionThe TTRPG selection is based on:
- All the TTRPG that have a Wikipedia page (estimated coverage: 95%) ;
- Plus all the TTRPG i heard about in my periodicals the last 10 years (blogs, podcasts, magazines) (estimated coverage: 80%) ;
- Plus all the TTRPG cited by a TTRPG selected before.
Counting & RecordingEach mention of citation was saved as a PNG file nameofgame-pXX.png (where XX is the page the snapshot was taken).
I also recorded :
- the colophons, the credit pages, the acknowledgement page, the forewords, the afterwords, etc.;
- the bibliographies, the filmographies, the mentions of artworks;
- and epigraphs (all or some of them).
DatabaseI choose Wikidata, because it was simple, it was open and it was fulfilling most of my needs. Wikidata can be queried by R Studio. The properties used were:
has a bibliography
SPARQLSPARQL is a language to query Wikidata and retrieve data. The main query is here.
R Studio Analysis
R and R Studio are very famous in the university around me. Its open, its quite simple to start, there is a lot of community support, its fashionable... so why not using it to process my data ?
I deposited the code of my R Studio project here on GitHub https://github.com/pmartinolli/OtSoCG
To have a look on a very drafty and preliminary graph displaying the data, please click on the picture below:
Monday, September 16, 2019
Stylistic devices in « Dungeons & Dragons »The name « Dungeons & Dragons » contains :
- an ampersand (&) ;
- three and a half alliterations ( DdD nn ss + j-g ) ;
- an assonance (with « on »),
- or an homeoteleuton (repeating of the sound « on » at the end of two consecutive words),
- or a sufficient rhyme ( əns\ ) ;
- a paronym (gathering 2 words which look alike) ;
- a troponym (gathering 2 words from the theme of adventure and underground fantasy)
- two allegories (the dungeons are places to explore, the dragons are mounstruous antagonists to defeat) ;
- a binary form (with 2 consecutive and balanced words) ;
- an aphorism (because it summarizes the content and the objectives of the game with very few words).
History of the name « Dungeons & Dragons »With his Blackmoor campaign, Dave Arneson was the inventor of the gameplay of the first tabletop role-playing games (Peterson, 2012 ; Kuntz, 2017 ; Graves et al, 2019). In 1973, Gary Gygax decided to edit the mechanical rules and to streamline the game experience. He also decided the name of that game.
« Dave Arneson was up in St. Paul and not with me when I wrote down two single-word lists of possible titles for the game. I did ask my player group which they liked, also queried my family. My youngest daughter Cindy, was adamant that I must use “Dungeons & Dragons.” As a number of others were in agreement with that choice, and I liked the alliteration, that’s what I went with when I took the mss. I had written to the printer in early December 1973. » (primary source : Gygax, 2002)
« Gygax paired random mythic words like fantasy, adventure, swords, and sorcery until he came to one his 4-year-old daughter Cindy approved of. “Oh, Daddy,”she said, “I like Dungeons & Dragons the best!” » (secondary source : Kushner, 2008)
From the moment of the first publication (1974), the name Dungeons & Dragons belonged to the two co-authors. Dave Arneson left TSR in 1976 and kept receiving royalties on D&D products as co-author. Later, Gary Gygax wrote a new edition, changing the name for « Advanced Dungeons & Dragons » without paying royalties to Dave Arneson who filed 2 lawsuits (Appelcline, 2015a, p. 32). After Wizards of the Coast bought TSR (1997), his CEO Peter Adkison definitely solved the property of the name with both Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson to secure the name « Dungeons & Dragons » and to abandon the word « Advanced » (Appelcline, 2015b, p. 145).
Crédit photo : BlackGate, 2016.
Legacy of the stylistic devices
Trade dress ?The name Dungeons & Dragons is copyrighted and it is a registered trademark ®.
The trade dress is another concept of intellectual property designed to protect what make a product unique : special fonts, layout of covers, of texts, of figures, etc. It seems that the stylistic device « ____ & ___ » cannot be claimed as trade dress. For this point, I lack of sources and expertise and I think it can change depending on the cases. For example, after been fired from TSR, Gary Gygax said he couldn't publish a game named Dangerous Dimensions because of the initials "DD", so he renamed it Dangerous Journey (Sacco, 1999).
[Digression: rpg-module by Michael C. Davis for LaTeX reproduces faithfully the layout of the modules of the 80s. I used it easily. I just dicovered TeXBrew which gives a imperssive outcomes for D&D 5th].
In TSR and WotC productsThe stylistic devices « ___ & ___ » were not reused a lot by the others TSR and WotC products. Hypothesis : to distinguish D&D from its supplements or from other product lines (Star Frontiers, Gamma Worlds, etc.).
- Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes (1976).
- Supplement no. 4 to OD&D.
- Swords & Spells (1976).
- Supplement no. 5 to OD&D.
- Deities & Demigods (1980).
- Supplement to AD&D.
- Legends & Lore (1984).
- Supplement to AD&D. Renamed, maybe because of the moral panics of the 80s (Appelcline, 2013) or for other reasons (Hartlage, 2019)
- Legends & Lore (1990).
- Supplement to AD&D 2nd ed.
- Deities and Demigods (2002).
- Supplement to D&D 3rd ed.
Other publishersOn the other hand, the stylistic devices « ___ & ___ » was used at least by 20 other publishers for games or perdiodicals. It could have been motivated by : homage, tribute, parody, pastiche, competition or collaboration.
|Tunnels & Trolls||1975||x||x|
|Alarums & Excursions||1975||x|
|White Bear and Red Moon||1975|
|Owl and Weasel||1975||x||x|
|Bunnies & Burrows||1976||x||x||x|
|Chivalry & Sorcery||1977||x||x||x|
|Villains and Vigilantes||1979||x||x|
|Jeux & Stratégie||1980||x||x|
|Power & Perils||1983||x||x|
|Privateers & Gentlemen||1983||x|
|Mutants & Masterminds||2002||x||x|
|Blood & Honor||2002||x|
|Vast & Starlit||2003||x||x||x|
|Mazes & Minotaurs||2006||x||x|
|Tranchons & Traquons||2007||x||x||x|
|Swords & Wizardry||2008||x|
|A Song of Ice and Fire RPG||2009|
|Secrets & Lies||2009||x|
|Mazes & Perils||2011||x|
|For Gold & Glory||2012||x||x||x|
|Plurals not included|
UpdateNew items I discovered since the first publication of this post in French in May (with the help of Reddit):
- Advanced Gungeons & Draguns
- Cadillacs and Dinosaurs
- Balrogs & Bagginses
- Beasts & Barbarians
- Bunkers & Badasses
- Dark Places & Demogorgons
- Dark Streets & Darker Secrets
- Dungeons the Dragoning 40.000, 7th ed.
- Empires & Dynasties
- Humans and households
- Kobolds & Catacombs
- Lasers & Feelings
- Man, Myth and Magic
- Mazes and Monsters
- Mice and Mystics
- Ogres & Oubliettes
- Papers & Paychecks
- Plüsch, Power and Plunder
- Rayguns and Rocketships
- Sharp Swords & Sinister Spells
- Spaceships & Starwyrms
- Starships & Spacemen
- Appelcline, Shannon. 2013. In Dungeon Masters Guild. Wizards of the Coast, s.v. « Legends & Lore (2nd) – Product History ». https://www.dmsguild.com/product/116010/Legends–Lore-2e.
- Shannon Appelcline is author of the notice as Product Historian.
- Appelcline, Shannon. 2015a. Designers & Dragons: The 70s. 2e éd. Silver Spring, MD: Evil Hat Productions.
- ———. 2015b. Designers & Dragons: The 90s. 2nd ed. Silver Spring, MD: Evil Hat Productions.
- 5 volumes encylopedia on TTRPG. Some free access bits here https://www.rpg.net/columns/list-column.phtml?colname=briefhistory.
- Graves, Chris, Griffith Mon Morgan III, and Ryan Swan. Secrets of Blackmoor: The True History of Dungeons & Dragons. Documentary. Fellowship of the Thing, 2019. https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/secretsofblackmoor/secrets-of-blackmoor-the-true-history-of-dungeons.
- Hartlage, David. 2013a. « From Blackmoor to Dungeons & Dragons: The Invention of the Dungeon Crawl ». DMDavid, 26 july 2013. http://dmdavid.com/tag/from-blackmoor-to-dungeons-dragons-the-invention-of-the-dungeon-crawl/.
- ———. 2013b. « How the Dungeon Crawl’s Advantages Propelled Dungeons & Dragons to Success ». DMDavid, 1 july 2013. http://dmdavid.com/tag/how-the-dungeon-crawls-advantages-propelled-dungeon-dragons-to-success/.
- ———. 2019. « The True Story of the Cthulhu and Elric Sections Removed from Deities & Demigods ». DMDavid (blog). 8 january 2019. http://dmdavid.com/tag/the-true-story-of-the-cthulhu-and-elric-sections-removed-from-deities-demigods/.
- Blog on history, design and GMing of D&D.
- Jarrety, Michel (ed/). 2001. Lexique des termes littéraires. Paris : Librarie Générale Française.
- Gygax, Gary. « Q&A with Gary Gygax ». Dragonsfoot Forums, 20 may 2002. https://www.dragonsfoot.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=160405#p160405.
- Gary Gygax answering a fan.
- Kuntz, Robert J. Dave Arneson’s True Genius. TLS1001. Scottsdale, AZ: Three Line Studio, 2017. https://www.threelinestudio.com/store/dave-arneson-s-true-genius/.
- Acknowledging the invention of TTRPG gameplay by Dave Arneson.
- Kushner, David. « Dungeon Master: The Life and Legacy of Gary Gygax ». Wired, march 2008. https://www.wired.com/2008/03/dungeon-master-life-legacy-gary-gygax/.
- Magazine article telling the story of the name D&D in a colorful way. Attribution to Cindy is correct, contrary to the book by David Ewalt who, in Of Dice and Men, attributes the choice to Gary"s elder daughter Elise « He read them aloud to his players, including Ernie and Elise, to gauge their reactions. The young girl’s delight at two of the words, an alliterative pair, confirmed the choice: the game would be called Dungeons & Dragons. » (p. 70)
- Lagacé, Sophie. 2017. « RPG a Day: Judging a Book by Its Cover ». The Reef, 5 août 2017, https://mechanteanemone.wordpress.com/2017/08/05/rpg-a-day-judging-a-book-by-its-cover/.
- Blog post participating to question no.5 of RPG-a-Day 2017 « Which RPG cover best captures the spirit of the game? »
- Peterson, Jon. Playing at the World: A History of Simulating Wars, People and Fantastic Adventures, from Chess to Role-Playing Games. San Diego, CA: Unreason Press, 2012.
- The heaviest sum on the birth of TTRPG. http://playingattheworld.blogspot.com/
- Sacco, Ciro Alessandro. « The Ultimate Interview With Gary Gygax ». The Kyngdoms, 1999. http://www.keithrobinson.me/thekyngdoms/interviews/garygygax.php.
- Interview conducted by Ciro Alessandro Ciro Sacco in 1999 for Dungeons.it.